Fortress were build to resist the attacks back in the history. Many of them still remain till today, overlooking the cities. This quite witnesses of the past are still beautiful and mystical as they were on the begging. Here i list of 6 most beautiful fortresses in the world according to my personal opinion .
1. Rumeli Fortress, Turkey
Once a cannon-studded defensive battlement that showed little mercy to ships failing to halt their course along the Bosphorus, then a customs point and prison, Rumeli Fortress fell victim to a vicious earthquake in 1509 and an even more vicious fire in 1746. Its final role, before ending up as a open-air museum and cultural centre, was to accommodate a residential neighborhood.
Once completed, Rumeli Hisarı, along with Anadolu Hisarı on the Asian shore just opposite, controlled all traffic on the Bosphorus, and cut the city of Constantinople off from resupply by sea from the north.
The mighty fortress’s useful military life was less than one year. Mehmet’s armines conquered the Byzantine capital several months later, and then there was no need for Rumeli Hisarı.
The fortress was used as a rather large and impressive Bosphorus toll booth for awhile, then as a barracks, later as a prison, and finally as an open-air theater, but never again as a fortress.
2.Mehrangarh Fortress, India
Mehrangarh the Fort of Jodhpur crowns a rocky hill that rises 400 feet above the surrounding plain, and appears both to command and to meld with the landscape. One of the largest forts in Rajasthan, it contains some of the finest palaces and preserves in its museum many priceless relics of Indian courtly life.
For over five centuries Mehrangarh fortress has been the headquarters of the senior branch of Rajput clan known as the Rathores. According to their bards, the ruling dynasty of this clan had at an earlier period controlled Kanauj (in what is known as Uttar Pradesh). Like other prominent medieval Rajput rulers – including the famous Prithviraj Chauhan – they were defeated by the invaders from Afghanistan at the end of the 12th century.
This catastrophe led to the disruption and migration of the early Rajput clans that they led. The Rathores came to Pali, in Marwar, in what is now central Rajasthan. It is claimed that they were to settle there to protect Brahmin villages against cattle-rustling local tribes. The story may seem somewhat fanciful, but the protection of the priestly caste in one of the traditional roles assigned to the Rajputs. Their task in Pali was the basis of their expanding power in the region.
3.Baba Vida, Bulgaria
It is built on top of a Roman fortress during the Xth century. It has never been conquered by an enemy army. Baba Vida rises proudly next to Danube river and is often a first stop for the visitors of the town… It was used for military purposes during the First and Second Bulgarian Kingdoms, the Ottoman Empire and all the way to 1958. Now, it is a famous tourist attraction and а movie scene. More than 50 movies were filmed in Baba Vida. There is a summer stage inside the walls where regular folklore events are organized. The Fortress is indeed very well preserved. You can walk inside, visit one of the eight towers, the jail or just enjoy the view to Danube and Romania. “Baba Vida” has a square shape, and the 4 of its corners are oriented to the world cardinal points. The Fortress is surrounded by a 6m deep ditch which was filled with water.
Established during the Eighty Years’ War, the fortified town of Bourtange fortress is a charming destination in the Westerwolde region of the Northern Netherlands, right on the border with Germany. Its stunning architecture and beautifully renovated state make it one of the best surviving examples of a star fort in Europe. Although mostly unknown to international visitors from further away, German and Dutch tourists are increasingly discovering this quaint village, where it seems to the eye that little has changed since 1782. The small community that lives in and around the fort -about 430 people in total- caters to the visitors’ needs by means of friendly hotels, pleasant cafés and an abundance of related activities in summer.
The star shaped fort was designed and built at the orders of William I of Orange, during the Dutch Revolt against Spain. The fort served a simple goal: to control the main road through the Bourtange swamps to Germany. The city of Groningen and its surroundings were still under Spanish control at the time, and received their supplies from allies in Germany. According to some sources, the assignment to build a fort was given to Diderick van Sonoy, one of the leaders of the Dutch “Geuzen”, the Calvinist Dutch nobles who took on the battle with the Spaniards. It was Adriaan Anthoniszoon who drew the designs of what would become a 5 sided bastion. Works began in 1580.
The fort was hardly finished when the city of Groningen was finally taken, and the fort was adapted to now suit a new purpose. It became part of the border defence lines of the three provinces of the Northern Netherlands. It was enforced and expanded several times, during wars that followed, but as the swamps around Bourtange slowly dried, the importance of the fort slowly diminished.
5.Potala Palace, Tibet
The Potala Palace, winter palace of the Dalai Lama since the 7th century, symbolizes Tibetan Buddhism and its central role in the traditional administration of Tibet. The complex, comprising the White and Red Palaces with their ancillary buildings, is built on Red Mountain in the centre of Lhasa Valley, at an altitude of 3,700m. Also founded in the 7th century, the Jokhang Temple Monastery is an exceptional Buddhist religious complex. Norbulingka, the Dalai Lama’s former summer palace, constructed in the 18th century, is a masterpiece of Tibetan art. The beauty and originality of the architecture of these three sites, their rich ornamentation and harmonious integration in a striking landscape, add to their historic and religious interest.
Enclosed within massive walls, gates and turrets built of rammed earth and stone the White and Red Palaces and ancillary buildings of the Potala Palace rise from Red Mountain in the centre of Lhasa Valley at an altitude of 3,700 metres. As the winter palace of the Dalai Lama from the 7th century CE the complex symbolizes Tibetan Buddhism and its central role in the traditional administration of Tibet. The White Palace contains the main ceremonial hall with the throne of the Dalai Lama, and his private rooms and audience hall are on the uppermost level. The palace contains 698 murals, almost 10,000 painted scrolls, numerous sculptures, carpets, canopies, curtains, porcelain, jade, and fine objects of gold and silver, as well as a large collection of sutras and important historical documents.
6.Kotor Fortress, Montenegro
Kotor’s fortifications are situated on steep slopes, but when viewed from below, they almost look more delicate than formidable – like a 4.5 km (3 mile) ribbon woven through the mountainside. Their crowning element is the Fortress of St. John (also known as the Castle of San Giovanni / St. Ivan), which sits roughly 250 meters (820 feet) above sea level. To get to the top, you must conquer about 1,350 stairs.
Built between the 9th and 19th centuries, the fortification’s walls didn’t actually create a continuous ring around Kotor’s Old Town until the 13th or 14th century. As military technology changed, so did the architecture. After firearms were invented, for example, new walls were constructed in front of the old ramparts.
While the Venetians were responsible for the bulk of the fortification’s components, the Illyrians, Byzantines, and Austrians also left their marks. In the last 500 years, powerful earthquakes have rocked the area three times, damaging the Old Town and the fortifications. The most recent earthquake occurred in 1979.